The Los Angeles Police Commission’s Advisory Committee On Building Trust And Equity Was Formed In July 2020 — And Won’t Report Out On Recommended Reforms Until The End Of This Year — But You Don’t Have To Wait! — I Obtained An Eighteen Page Draft Of Their Recommendations From October 26, 2020 — Get Your Copy Here! — Which Proposes Many Welcome Policy Changes — All Of Which Are Doomed To Fail If Implemented As Recommended — For The Same Old Reason — All Of Them Are To Be Enforced By The Police Themselves — Which In Practice Means They Would Be Voluntary — And Therefore Ignored

In July 2020 the Los Angeles Police Commission announced the formation of an Advisory Committee on Building Trust and Equity. Here’s the Commission’s press release on it, which summarizes the Committee’s charge:

The Advisory Committee is expected to focus its work on a review of discipline and accountability; assessing current policing reform proposals being considered throughout the country; evaluating the implementation of past LAPD reform proposals; examining the LAPD’s recruitment, hiring, retention and training process; and analyzing data collection and retention practices.

As part of this work the Committee ran a series of community meetings featuring different local organizations presenting their visions of police reform,1 all of which are available on the Commission’s surprisingly useful YouTube channel.

The point of the meetings was ostensibly to gather information related to the Committee’s main charge, which is to conduct “a comprehensive review of LAPD policies and procedures, and deliver recommendations for additional reforms.” The Committee’s recommendations are expected by the end of 2020.

Which is a long time to wait, but fortunately waiting isn’t completely necessary. I recently obtained a working draft, dated October 26, 2020, of some of the Committee’s work. This document has the current state of their recommendations on “Data Collection, Reporting, Use, Access, Retention and Transparency” and on “Stop, Search and Arrest Data (RIPA).” The original is an MS Word file, and I exported it to PDF for ease of use (and it’s also transcribed at the end of this post).

There are probably hundreds of recommendations here, ranging from the maddeningly naive, like “Encourage officers to see themselves as guardians and protectors of the citizens of their community,” to the infuriatingly vague, e.g. “Integrate procedural justice into all enforcement activities by treating people with dignity and respect.”

Some are very important even if on a small scale, e.g. “Require officers to identify themselves by their full name, rank, and command and provide that information in writing to individuals who they have stopped” or “Require officers to document consent and the reason for the search in writing.” Nevertheless, even if every single one of the Committee’s recommendations is adopted for the LAPD, not much will change.

And this is for precisely the same reason that the LAPD is so messed up now, which is that all of these recommendations are supposed to be administered and enforced by the LAPD themselves. Which means that their so-called “expert data team” that’s supposed to “to oversee the Department’s databases, as well as the collection, auditing, and transparency of data” is going to be made up of cops and non-sworn LAPD staff who’ve mostly been bullied into submission by cops.

It means that the Committee’s recommendation that “[d]ata should be presented in a way that promotes true transparency, comprehensibility and encourages public engagement and collaboration” is going to implemented by the same kind of cynical outlaws that currently run LAPD’s Public Records Act office. There’s nothing here that’s going to upset the status quo because LAPD and LAPD alone will control the implementation of the policies.

If the Police Commission were even a little willing to independently oversee the LAPD I would be excited by some of these recommendations. All of them would be very welcome if they weren’t going to be enforced on the honor system by the very police they claim to regulate. But they are, so they won’t be.

Read the text and judge for yourself, of course, It appears at the end of this post (or MS Word or PDF). But as things stand I can’t think how mandating more voluntary reforms for the police to ignore is going to change much of anything at First and Spring. Which, of course, is the real, the unstated charge of this Committee.

Data, Information and Video Footage

Current Reforms Recommendations

Roy REV 10/17/20

Mary REV 10/26/20

Data Collection, Reporting, Use, Access, Retention and Transparency Policy Recommendations

Create an Expert Data Team. (Discussed with Alma and Roy and revised. I would keep in for now for discussion unless you feel strongly about removing)

  • A data team, comprised of individuals with data systems and analytical expertise, should be created and assigned to oversee the Department’s databases, as well as the collection, auditing, and transparency of data.

  • A qualified, designated data manager should be assigned to oversee the data team and assist with the data requests, research collaborations, and data for risk management. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • The data team should be informed about and responsible for security protocols and the protection of data within the department’s control. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • The data team should be able to analyze and maintain demographic and enforcement data to identify, among other things, possible patterns of biased policing, misallocation of resources, or inadequate training.

  • This team should also advise on the engagement of outside experts to help the Department update and restructure its current databases and procure adequate systems for collecting and storing data that can efficiently integrate and analyze all data sets.

Collect and Publish Demographic and Enforcement Data.

  • Collect and make publicly available data about pedestrian and traffic stops, searches, summonses, arrests, reported crime, uses of force, complaints (volume and nature of), officer injuries, and officer training. (Current Reforms Rec; modified with officer injuries and training)

  • The data should be disaggregated by demographics to help assess the effectiveness of police practices, maintain accountability, and engage the community. https://data.louisvilleky.gov/search/type/dataset?query=lmpd&sort_by=changed&sort_order=DESC

  • The Department should work to collect the above data in real time so that the information can be made available to the public closer in time to the acts or incidents.

  • Analyze and maintain demographic and enforcement data to identify possible patterns of biased policing, misallocation of resources, or inadequate training. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Report and make available to the public census data regarding the composition of the department including race, gender, age, educational-level, and other relevant demographic data. (Current Reforms Rec; previously under Public Census Data on the Composition of Police Departments)

  • Each officer should be assigned a unique identifier so the department can link officers to other data, including officer-involved incidents such as misconduct complaints, while protecting officer privacy and due process. (Current Reforms Rec modified)

Improve Data Quality and Accuracy.

  • In order to improve data quality, the Department should emphasize in training, and reinforce continuously thereafter, the importance of detailed and accurate reporting off all data.

  • In order to achieve this, data should also be recorded or memorialized contemporaneous to the act, or as close in time to the act as possible.

  • The Department should create more supervisory oversight and internal auditing mechanisms to ensure the information being reported and collected accurately reflects what occurred.

    • Supervisors should conduct regular reviews of their officers crime reports, Field Identification Cards, SARs reports, RIPA forms, BWC and In-Vehicle footage, etc., to ensure the information reported or captured on video accurately reflects the totality of the incident or acts reported.

    • Department should conduct regular internal audits of its personnel’s data collection practices to ensure compliance.

  • To encourage accuracy, policies and training should emphasize that any false material statements or material omissions in police documentation is considered serious misconduct and could result in disciplinary action including suspension or termination (or a referral to the District Attorney’s Office).

Limit Access of Data to Authorized Employees for Official Business Purposes.

  • Develop clear policies and procedure for access to data including:

    • Data stored on or available through department systems should only be accessed by authorized employees who are engaged in an active investigation, assisting in an active investigation, or otherwise have a legitimate law enforcement or department business-related purpose to access such data;

    • Access controls should be streamlined and consistently applied to all data and should require authentication, authorization, and password controls to view data;

    • Access to sensitive information should be limited authorized employees with an express need to review such data;

    • Clear policies should be implemented regarding who has edit rights to the data and when they can edit said data;

    • Access logs should be routinely audited to ensure that data access policies and procedures are being complied with by Department personnel.

  • [need to flush out more……]

Increase Community Trust by Making Data Public and Facilitating Public Engagement.

  • Report data publicly and discuss with the community at regular public forums and oversight meetings. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Continue to expand its open data access and include, where feasible, data summaries/reports in English, Spanish, etc.

  • Adopt model policies and best practices for community engagement around data that increases community trust and access.

  • Update the public-facing website so that data is more easily accessible to the public.

  • Data should be presented in a way that promotes true transparency, comprehensibility and encourages public engagement and collaboration through information dashboards, maps, graphical interfaces that use icons, menus, and other visual graphics. (Current Reforms Rec modified)

  • Raw data should be available for download so researchers, academics, and other interested parties can access and analyze it. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Make CompStat meetings public and livestream them.

Release Information About Critical Events in a Timely Manner. (Review LAPD Policy and revise accordingly)

  • Make the release of information about critical events a top priority. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • The Department should work with community members, elected officials, local prosecutors, officer organizations, crime victims’ representatives, and others to develop policies around the release of information about critical incidents. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • When possible, leaders should also release existing BWC and dashboard camera (a.k.a. “dashcam”) footage within hours of an incident. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • If information cannot be released to the public, be transparent and explain why. Let the public know that city leaders will share information as it becomes available. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Address privacy concerns.

    • Footage should be reviewed for any potential privacy concerns before it is released to broad, public audiences, e.g., blur the images of those not involved in the encounter; (Current Reforms Rec)

    • Particular care should be taken to articulate in policy and execute in practice those privacy protections regarding the release of information related to victims, victims’ families, involved officers, and officer families. (Current Reforms Rec)

Incorporate Social Media into Communications Plans to Enhance Transparency and Build Community Trust. (Does LAPD have a social media policy?)

  • Recognize social media as an integral part of a city’s traditional approach to media, and be prepared to communicate accurately, transparently and in a timely manner through social media channels. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Ensure that the media team includes members trained in the use of social media. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Create a social media protocol for proactive and reactive communications well in advance of an incident to guide response, but also remain flexible and nimble. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Establish a routine practice of monitoring social media and use this tool as an opportunity to listen to communities. (Current Reforms Rec)

Procure High-Quality Systems to Collect and Store Data.

  • The Department should invest in high-quality, updated data collection equipment and technology for ingesting and storing all of the data.

  • The Department should move away from siloed databases and seek a more integrated data system to help better assess and analyze the data collected. The systems and technology should help facilitate the Department’s ability to aggregate, disaggregate, and analyze all data sets by demographics.

  • Implement best solutions for preserving data and storing it efficiently, e.g., cloud-based solutions.

  • The Department should track information about officer activity through computer-aided dispatch (CAD) systems, record management systems (RMS), or other performance databases. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • The Department should not use data collection technologies to collect and store large amounts of data about members of the public, and departments should not collect private information (such as personal characteristics, associations, or activities) or use technologies that risk infringing on civil and human rights. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Implement storage practices and systems to preserve the integrity of video footage. In general, departments should delete footage that has not been flagged (e.g., footage that is related to an investigation) after six months. (*include in Data Retention) (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Policies should also include provisions to preserve data related to criminal investigations until cases are closed. Once footage is stored, departments should have a cybersecurity plan in place to protect it. (*include in Data Retention) (Current Reforms Rec)

Learn from Collected Data.

  • Expanded research and data collection are necessary to knowing what works and what does not work, which policing practices are effective and which ones have unintended consequences. (Current Reforms Rec)

Report All Data on Officer-Involved Shootings, In-Custody Deaths and Uses of Force Resulting in Serious Bodily Harm to the Federal Government.

  • Collect, maintain, and report data to the Federal Government, including to the FBI’s Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) and Bureau of Criminal Apprehension (BCA) for inclusion in the hate crimes and national use-of-force database, on all officer-involved shootings, whether fatal or nonfatal, as well as any in-custody deaths and uses of force resulting in serious or great bodily harm. (Current Reforms Rec w/ additions)

Implement Comprehensive Data Retention and Destruction Policies.

  • Develop clear and comprehensive policies and procedures pertaining to the retention and destruction of all data that includes:

  • Data related to criminal investigations should be preserved until cases are closed. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • There should be a cybersecurity plan in place to protect stored footage. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • The Departments should delete footage that has not been flagged as related to an investigation after six months. (Current Reforms Rec)

    • [*This needs to be revised and flushed out more …. review Police Dept Survey Data Privacy Guidelines and Retention chart and policies of jurisdictions]

Suspicious Activity Reports (“SARS”). Include SARS in the arrest files for arrests made based on SARS. (Philly PD Directive 5.28)

  • Restrict information collected in the SARS to use only for a bon fide law enforcement and/or intelligence analysis purposes and/or for defense in civil or administrative actions brought against the Police Department members or Police Department. (District of Columbia Metro. Police General Order HSC-802.06)

  • [*Need someone to review SARs polices outlined in Survey of Technology-Related Policies and flush out more]

Technology-Related Recommendations

Expand Policies for General Technology Use.

  • The LAPD Technology Review and Advisory Committee (“TRAC”) should be comprised of individuals from the Department who have knowledge and expertise in the capabilities, uses, policies and practices of technology used by its officers.

  • The Department’s Policy for General Use Technology should include the following:

    • Require the Department maintain clear policies and procedures, training, and oversight for each technology used to gather electronic data to ensure that said technology is being utilized correctly and effectively;

    • Make these policies accessible on LAPD’s public-facing website;

    • Recommend supervisors regularly review the data collected by its officers to ensure compliance;

    • Permit and encourage the Department to access and audit any and all communications, including content that is sent, received and/or stored through the use of such technology; (NOLA PD – Policy 342)

    • Prohibit employees from using department technology to engage in discriminatory or harassing behavior; (Austin PD Manual)

    • Include consequences for intentional misuse or abuse of technology and its policies or procedures.

Ensure Body-Worn Camera (BWC) Policies are Best Practices.

  • Require all personnel with primarily field-based responsibilities to use BWC during their entire assignment and have them powered on while on duty. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Make the electronic recording of an investigative or enforcement encounter mandatory and non-discretionary, except where specifically noted.

    • Clearly state when officers are required to activate BWCs and for how long, e.g., LAPD requires body worn video (BWC) to be activated “prior to an investigative or enforcement activity involving a member of the public” and “until the investigative or enforcement activity involving a member of the public has ended.” (Current Reforms Rec)

    • Define what is meant by “investigative or enforcement,” provide examples of them, and clearly state exceptions, such as recording lawful behavior (e.g., political or religious activity and conversations with confidential informants, child victims, ……[fill in more ) (Current Reforms Rec modified) (*LAPD includes so we should evaluate what should be added to enhance this – see other jurisdictions)

    • Require officers to test their assigned BWC before each shift, and provide training and guidance on mandatory, discretionary, and prohibited activation of the BWC. (Oklahoma City Police Operations Manual, Procedure 188)

    • BWCs should record at least 30 seconds of video (though typically not audio) prior to activation. LAPD currently records two minutes of video prior to activation. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Officers should inform people that they are being recorded, absent exigent circumstances (when possible) (Current Reforms Rec modified)

  • The Department should require officers to record all encounters with safeguards to protect privacy and preserve community relationships. (Current Reforms Rec) (*LAPD policy does so we should evaluate what should be added to enhance this – see other jurisdictions)

  • Establish clear BWC policies and procedures for sensitive encounters, including domestic violence, and child victims and witnesses.

  • BWC technology should not be used for the sole purpose of monitoring activities that are protected by the First Amendment including an individual’s freedom of religion, speech, the right to peaceably assemble, and the right to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. (other police dept)

  • Implement policies for regular supervisory review of the BWC practices with officers to ensure compliance (*LAPD policy does so we should evaluate what should be added to enhance this – see other jurisdictions)

  • Department leaders should implement a systematic audit function to monitor the use of body-worn cameras and ensure adherence to department policies and require officers to provide written justifications when they violate BWC policies. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Establish clear “chain of custody” for camera footage/access.

  • Create and implement policies for violating BWC policy.

    • Policies should clearly prohibit department personnel from modifying, altering, copying, editing, or deleting footage and that doing so could result in disciplinary action including suspension or termination. (Current Reforms Rec)

    • Policies should also clearly prohibit the improper access and distribution of footage

  • In order to protect privacy, BWC footage (*we may want to classify footage like other departments have done) should be deleted after XX months unless part of an ongoing investigation or prosecution. This policy should be consistent will all other data retention policies. Prohibit the use of BWC footage that exists beyond the deletion date.

  • Department should prohibit the use of facial recognition software with BWC footage. (Current Reforms Rec)

Implement DOJ Best Practices re BWCs. (*keep separated for now so commission knows DOJ best practices, even if redundant)

  • Clearly defined penalties should attach for the misuse (improperly editing, erasing, copying, sharing, altering, or distributing) of camera footage and violations of body-worn camera policies. (Current Reforms Rec)

    • Officers should not be given any knowledge of the contents and should not be given the right to view footage before making a report of the incident, and police footage should be logged in a server. [For all incidents or just those where there is an allegation of police misconduct?] (Current Reforms Rec)

    • The public should be allowed to obtain footage for use of force incidents after investigations are complete. (Current Reforms Rec)

    • BWC policies should also address privacy concerns raised by the large amounts of data recorded by those cameras containing potentially sensitive information deserving of individual policies. (Current Reforms Rec)

Train Officers on the Proper Use and Maintenance of BWCs.

  • Officers should be trained to immediately activate BWCs at the beginning of encounters unless otherwise directed (e.g., when in contact with a child victim). (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Training should also cover the responsibilities for and restrictions on using BWCs, such as informing people that they are being recorded (again, when possible). (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Training should also include practices to ensure (1) the integrity of recordings; (2) that the footage “chain of custody” is documented (i.e., who has possessed the footage and whom they have passed it along to and when); and (3) disciplinary action for improperly editing, erasing, copying, sharing, altering, or distributing camera footage. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • [Fill in ….]

Analyze BWC Footage Like Data and Identify Patterns.

  • Body-worn camera footage should be analyzed like data, so that patterns can be shown across incidents in the aggregate, instead of only analyzing it as evidence after a problem. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Assist researchers in building an automatic speech recognition system for BWC footage to allow the department to examine officers’ language precisely and systematically, and then develop strategies for improving officer communication. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Add a field on the stop data form regarding BWC usage where officers can indicate if their camera was not activated, and if so, why not. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Tag BWC footage to allow the department and researchers to associate each stop in the database with the BWC footage from that stop. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Require officers to self-audit racially charged BWC footage. (Current Reforms Rec) [What does this mean?]

  • Invest in the development of a BWC early warning system, like PRIME, which uses a suite of metrics to determine which officers may be having trouble and which may be likely to have trouble in the near future. (Current Reforms Rec)

Ensure In-Vehicle Video Recording Policies are Best Practices.

  • Clearly state when and how the video recording must be activated

    • Require In-Vehicle Video Recordings to start when the vehicle ignition is turned on, and to end after the ignition is turned off.

  • Require training for every officer on the proper use of the in-vehicle video recording and create video categorization and retention requirements. (Seattle PD, San Antonio PD, Baltimore PD)

  • Require officers to record certain incidents, including traffic stops, searches, transports, and questioning of victims, suspects, or witnesses.

  • Require data be uploaded to a secure storage repository.

  • Impose retention requirements consistent with the footage classification and other data storage policies. (Baltimore Police Department Policy 825 – 4 years)

  • Prohibit Officers from deleting or otherwise tampering with in-vehicle recording footage and outline penalties for doing so.

Implement Clear Automated License Plate Reader (ALPR Technology) Policies.

  • Ensure compliance with SB 34. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Ensure compliance with Report issued by State Auditor, dated February 2020. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Develop an ALPR policy that includes:

    • Establishes authorized and prohibited uses of LPR systems. (Seattle Police Department Manual Policy 16.170)

    • Specifies information about the individuals who have access to the ALPR system and how the agency will monitor the use of the ALPR system to ensure the security of the data; (Current Reforms Rec)

    • Ensures that vendors who have access to ALPR systems adequately protect criminal justice information; (Current Reforms Rec)

    • Addresses data sharing mechanisms; (Current Reforms Rec)

    • Addresses proper data retention mechanisms that considers both the usefulness of the ALPR images and individuals’ privacy when deciding how long to retain the images (considering the general dates of searches to determine the appropriate retention schedule most useful to the investigators). (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Implement internal safeguards to protect against misuse of data. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Best practices include supervisor approval and ALPR training as a prerequisite for account access, suspension of accounts defined as “inactive,” training for “inactive” users to regain active status, and deletion of accounts when employees separate from the agency. Restrict the use of LPR systems to “public safety-related missions,” such as any incident involving a call or a complaint, and do not allow the use of LPR systems to be used for curiosity or to find someone to ticket. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Require any positive plate identification on a vehicle through the LPR system also be verified visually by an officer to confirm that the plate number matches the plate number run by the LPR system.

  • Require officers to confirm the current status of the plate through dispatch prior to taking enforcement action. (Dallas PD General Order 304.17)

  • Allow LPR technology to only be used to collect data that is within public view and not be used for the sole purpose of monitoring individual activities protected by the First Amendment. (San Jose Police Department Duty Manual L4207)

  • Prohibit officers from using a LPR alert to identify an individual’s ethnic, racial, or sexual orientation; or exclusively justify law enforcement response or contact.

  • Evaluate, annually, whether the technology is being used in accordance with the above guidelines. (San Francisco PD Surveillance Proposed Technology Policy: Automated License Plate Reader)

  • Retain LPR data for XX after it is collected. This policy should be consistent with all other data storage policies. (Austin PD Policy Manual, Policy 344; San Jose Police Department Duty Manual L4207)

Implement Limited-Use Facial Recognition Software Policies.

  • Create strict and clear guidelines to ensure that the use of facial recognition technology is used on a limited basis and balances the need for effective, accurate law enforcement investigations, and the need to respect the privacy of citizens.

    • Officers should notify their supervisors when they believe the use of facial recognition software is appropriate (Chicago PD)

    • Officers should recognize the limitations of facial recognition technology, and the disproportionate adverse impacts of these limitation on racial minorities (Miami PD)

  • Include in the guidelines that an identification of an individual through facial recognition software alone is insufficient probable cause for an arrest. (NYPD Patrol Guide Procedure No 212-129, pg. 691)

  • The Department should implement policies for supervisory review and regular audits of the use of facial recognition software to determine if this investigative tool is being used correctly and is not disproportionately impacting minorities.

  • If after conducting regular audits, the Department determines it is disproportionately impacting minorities, it should ban the use of such technology.

  • [*Review the survey of Technology Related Policies for further insight on restrictions/bans, etc., to incorporate]

New Technology Recommendations

Create New Technology Protocols that Engage the Community

  • Draft and adopt model policies and best practices for technology-based engagement that increases community trust and access.

  • These policies should include public engagement and collaboration, including the use of community advisory boards, surveys, public town halls or other forums to obtain input from the community before adopting new technology.

  • Consider creating an advisory board for the adoption of new technology that includes, among others, line officers, union representatives, members of other departments, prosecutors, defense attorneys and citizens.

  • Include an evaluation or assessment process to gauge the effectiveness of new technology, soliciting input from all levels of the Department from line officers to leaders as well as members of the community.

  • [*Need to flush this out a bit to give department guidance]

Privacy and Ethical Use of Data Recommendations

Create Policies to Protect the Privacy Rights of Individuals

  • [need to fill in]

Stop, Search and Arrest Data (RIPA) Recommendations

(**NEED TO REVIEW OIG REPORT AND REVISE ACCORDINGLY)

(Roy Rev 10/17/20)

Collect, Maintain, and Analyze Demographic Detention Data.

  • Collect, maintain, and analyze demographic data on all police activity (including, stops, frisks, searches, summons, and arrests). (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Collect individual-level stop data that include the date and time of the stop; the location of the stop; the race, gender and age of the driver; the stop reason; whether a search was conducted; the search type (for example, ‘probable cause’ or ‘consent’); whether contraband was found during a search; the stop outcome (for example, a citation or an arrest); and the specific violation with which the driver was charged. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Build a stop data dashboard that clearly summarizes and visualizes stop data; this allows command staff to quickly glean trends, explore their own hypotheses, and develop sophisticated predictive algorithms. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Automate stop data analyses to efficiently produce reports. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Automate narrative analyses and work with researchers to develop algorithms to explore why officers stop, search, handcuff, and take other actions. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Add a field on the stop data form to capture squad information to allow analysts to measure how much stop outcomes vary by the squad’s experience level, gender diversity, racial diversity, and so forth. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Add a field on the stop data form to capture squad sergeant information to allow researchers to examine how squad sergeants influence officers [and] to examine the relative contributions of officer experience and squad sergeant to the decisions officers are making about who to stop, search, handcuff, or arrest. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Have risk management meetings once monthly with command staff from each area of department to compare stop data for the area to department-wide stop data over a six-month period, break down stop metrics by race and discuss trends, compare squads to one another, etc. Produce and publish an annual Racial Impact Report on stop data. (Current Reforms Rec)

Eliminate Predictive Surveillance Practices.

  • Eliminate predictive surveillance practices. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Prohibit the use of artificial intelligence as the basis for predictive policing.

  • Prior to using artificial intelligence for predictive policing, the information should be made public and the public must be given a reasonable amount of time to weigh in on the use.

Reduce the Total Number of Stops.

  • Prohibit pretext stops, except where there is reasonable articulable suspicion concerning a felony involving the individual. (*is that the law?)

  • Prohibit searches based on unscientific indicators.

  • Reduce the number of stops, as well as tracking, remaining conscious of, and working to eliminate as much as possible any disparity. That is true for reasons of racial justice, but also for reasons of overall public safety. (Current Reforms Rec)

Redefine Metrics and Eliminate Quotas:

  • Ban formal and informal quotas for stops searches, tickets, and arrests. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Eliminate using the number of stops, arrests, and citations as a primary metric for evaluating officers. Judge officers on the quality of their policing, rather than the quantity. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Make cite and serve, as opposed to arrest, the presumptive police action where individual is not a danger to the community. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • When responding to non-violent offenses, officers should consider verbal warnings and counseling rather than writing tickets or making arrests. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Explore alternatives to incarceration such as diversion programs. (Current Reforms Rec)

Consent to Search:

  • Departments must clearly forbid unlawful vehicle and pedestrian stops, searches, and arrests. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Officers should be banned from seeking consent to search without probable cause to believe that a felony has been/is being committed.

  • Reinforce officers’ obligations to inform people of their right to refuse consent or revoke consent. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Officers should seek written acknowledgment that they have sought and received consent from the subject of a search.

  • Require officers to document consent and the reason for the search in writing. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Maintain the prohibition on no-knock/quick-knock warrants.

  • Encourage officers to seek a search warrant when appropriate. (Current Reforms Rec modified)

Increase Transparency Through Detailed Reporting:

  • Require officers to draft detailed written reports of stops, searches, and arrests as soon as possible after the interaction. When documenting stops, searches, and arrests, officers should use accurate and specific descriptive language to explain the basis for the action. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Ensure that supervisors closely review reports to ensure compliance with department policy and law. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Routinely update and add questions to incident report forms to allow researchers to isolate by certain defining factors, such as: officer’s experience level, gender, race, squad, squad sergeant, and so forth. (Current Reforms Rec)

Employ Technology and Data Analytics:

  • Invest in technology to identify trends more easily for individual officers, squads, and department wide. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Digitalize data input systems to streamline the reporting process for officers, saving them time and increasing report accuracy. Automate data analyses to efficiently produce reports. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Employ researchers to analyze data and work with the department to develop policies that counteract and prevent unwanted outcomes. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Identify factors associated with high- and low-performing squads to examine how much these performance differences are due to the individual officer characteristics, squad characteristics, squad supervisors, and the directives officers receive from command staff. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Monitor and reduce stress and fatigue on officers and examine how these factors influence officer decision-making during police-initiated stops. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Conduct meetings with command staff from each area of the department to discuss data, trends, and policies aimed at addressing any issues identified in the review. (Current Reforms Rec)

Enact Clear Policies Regarding Attribute-Based Stops, Searches, and Arrests:

  • Department should ban profiling.

  • Policies should provide clear guidance as to when it is permissible to consider such characteristics as race, ethnicity, national origin, religion, gender, gender-identity, sexual orientation, age, disability, familial status, immigration status, veteran status, health status, housing status, economic status, occupation, or proficiency with the English language. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Adopt specific policies for interactions with LGBTQ+ people. (Current Reforms Rec)

Enact Policies that Increase Trust with the Community:

  • Encourage officers to see themselves as guardians and protectors of the citizens of their community. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Require officers to identify themselves by their full name, rank, and command and provide that information in writing to individuals who they have stopped. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Integrate procedural justice into all enforcement activities by treating people with dignity and respect. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Give all suspects a voice during police encounters and make neutral and transparent decisions to increase trust with the community. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Recognize in some official way the burden that racial disparities in policing have imposed of communities of color. This recognition was the focal point of many comments during the public meetings and has proven important and effective in opening up dialogue about next steps. (Current Reforms Rec)

View Federal Law as a Floor, Not a Ceiling:

  • Cities, state attorneys, and departments themselves should take an active role to implement reform policies without the aid of the federal government or the binding agreement of a consent decree. (Current Reforms Rec)

Focus on Officer Language:

  • Review how certain language employed by officers during stops can affect outcomes. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Review whether it is advisable to ask a subject whether they are on probation or parole. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Review whether officers should employ severe legal language when conducting a stop. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • Officers should identify themselves and clearly explain the reason for the stop, search, or arrest. (Current Reforms Rec)

Critically Examine Current Policing Strategies:

  • Police tactics should consider models of medical intervention where concerns focus on:

    (1) Appropriate diagnosis,

    (2) Matching treatment with diagnosis,

    (3) Calibrating the appropriate dosage recognizing individual variation, and

    (4) Watching for unintended consequences or especially negative side effects. (Current Reforms Rec)

  • As more data emerges on the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of police strategies, departments need to development a set of alternative strategies and their officers will need to be retained accordingly. (Current Reforms Rec)

  1. One of these, by the way, was this seriously unhinged 12 minutes put on by the LAPD police union, the Los Angeles Police Protective League.
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